‏‫‭Illustrated essential principals & procedures of biochemistry lab
نویسنده:
Majid Banimohammad
مترجم:
-
سال نشر:
1400
صفحه:
136
نوبت چاپ:
1

در فصل اول این کتاب، اصول حفظ ایمنی و سلامت کار در آزما یشگاه بیوشیمی ذکر شده و روش ها ی حفاظت فردی و جمعی بیان
گردیدند . بدین ترتیب دانشجویان علوم پزشکی، می توانند حین حضور در آزمایشگاه سلامت و ایمنی خود و محیط را حفظ کرده و
خطرات را تشخیص داده و از آنها دور بماند. در فصل دوم این کتاب، لوازم آزمایشگاهی و وسیله هایی که دانشجویان علوم پزشکی با
آنها به انجام آزمایش میپردازند، معرفی گردیدند تا دانشجویان بتوانند ضمن شناخت دقیق وسایل آزمایشگاهی و دانستن کاربرد
های آن ها، آزمایشات خود را به درستی انجام دهند. در فصل سوم این کتاب روش انجام و پایه های علمی مهمترین آزمایش های
آزمایشگاه بیوشیمی، برای دانشج ویان پزشکی، پرستاری، و علوم آزمایشگاه ی شرح داده شده اند. آزما یشات با ترتیب هوشمندانها ی
از موضوع کربوهیدرات ها شروع شده و سپس با پروتئین ها، چربی ها، و اسیدهای نوکلئیک ادامه می یابند. در فصل چهارم، آخرین
و به روز ترین تکنیک های آزمایشگاهی بیوشیمیایی برای علوم پزشکی ذکر گردیده و پا یه های علمی آنها تشریح شدند. بدین
ترتیب دانشجویان علوم پزشکی م ی توانند آشنایی کاملی از بروز تر ین تکنیک های آزمایشگاهی داشته باشند و بتوانند از این دانش
در در حرفه خود استفاده نمایند.

Title Page
1st Chapter: Principles of Laboratory Workspace
Safety ................................................................................................ 13
Figure 1: Safety is the first and the most important issue. ............... 13
Smoking .................................................................................................... 13
Figure 2: Smoking is prohibited in all technical sections of the laboratory....................................................................................... 13
Foods, beverages and similar substances that cause more hand-to-mouth contact ....................................................................................................... 14
Figure 3: In all technical parts of the laboratory, eating, drinking or other activities that cause hand contact with the mouth should be avoided. ......................................................................................... 14
Use gloves ................................................................................................. 15
Figure 4: Gloves should always be available in different sizes and from suitable and high-quality materials in all technical parts. ........ 16
Staff uniforms ........................................................................................... 17
Figure 5: When working in the lab, all technical staff should wear a long-sleeved cover with the completely closed front or a long-sleeved lab coat with the completely closed sleeves. ................................... 18
Shoes ......................................................................................................... 18
Figure 6: It is recommended to use shoes made of materials that are impervious to liquids such as leather or synthetic materials. ........... 19
Pipette removal ......................................................................................... 19
Hand washing ........................................................................................... 20
Figure 7: The correct method of hand washing. .............................. 20
Eye washing .............................................................................................. 21
Figure 8: eye wash system.............................................................. 21
Eye and face protection ............................................................................ 22
Figure 9: goggles. .......................................................................... 22
Hair and jewelry ....................................................................................... 23
Beard ......................................................................................................... 23
Storage of hazardous materials ................................................................ 24
Sharp and winning tools ........................................................................... 24
Figure 10: Sharp and winning tools. ............................................... 25
Respiratory aids ........................................................................................ 25
Figure 11: Respiratory aids in laboratory. ....................................... 26
Emergency showers .................................................................................. 27
Figure 12: Emergency showers in laboratory. ................................. 27
Disinfect laboratory equipment ............................................................... 28
Observe safety precautions when working with a centrifuge ................ 28
Figure 13: centrifuge. ..................................................................... 29
Patient isolation methods ......................................................................... 29
Figure 14: Patient isolation. ............................................................ 29
Identify clean and contaminated areas .................................................... 30
Figure 15: Clean contaminated areas. ............................................. 30
Exit Ways .................................................................................................. 31
Figure 16: Exit Ways. .................................................................... 31
Staff personal belongings ......................................................................... 32
Trash disposal ........................................................................................... 32
Figure 17: Bucket list. .................................................................... 35
2nd Chapter: Laboratory Equipment
Beaker........................................................................................................ 39
Figure 18: Beaker. .......................................................................... 39
Figure 19:(A) A low-form or Griffin form beaker. (B) A tall-form or Berzelius beaker. (C) A flat beaker or crystallizer .......................... 40
Erlenmeyer Flask ...................................................................................... 41
Figure 20: Erlenmeyer Flask .......................................................... 41
Büchner Flask ........................................................................................... 42
Figure 21: Büchner Flask. .............................................................. 42
Florence Flask ........................................................................................... 42
Figure 22: Florence Flask. .............................................................. 42
Test Tubes ................................................................................................. 43
Figure 23: Test Tubes. ................................................................... 43
Watch Glasses ........................................................................................... 43
Figure 24: Watch Glasses. .............................................................. 43
Crucible ..................................................................................................... 44
Figure 25: Crucible. ....................................................................... 44
Funnel ........................................................................................................ 44
Figure 26: Funnel. .......................................................................... 44
Graduated Cylinder .................................................................................. 45
Figure 27: Graduated Cylinder. ...................................................... 45
Figure 28: Set the lowest altitude as the measuring point for correct reading. .......................................................................................... 45
Volumetric Flask ...................................................................................... 46
Figure 29: Volumetric Flask. .......................................................... 46
Round Bottom Flask ................................................................................. 46
Figure 30: Round Bottom Flask. .................................................... 46
Distillation balloon ................................................................................... 47
Figure 31: Distillation balloon. ....................................................... 47
Dropper ..................................................................................................... 47
Figure 32: Dropper. ........................................................................ 47
Desiccator.................................................................................................. 48
Figure 33: Desiccator. .................................................................... 48
Pipette ........................................................................................................ 48
Figure 34: Pipettes. ........................................................................ 49
Pipette Filler .............................................................................................. 49
Figure 35: Pipette Filler. ................................................................ 49
Burette ....................................................................................................... 50
Figure 36: Burette. ......................................................................... 50
Stand and Clamp ....................................................................................... 51
Figure 37: Stand and Clamps. ........................................................ 51
Tongs and Forceps .................................................................................... 51
Figure 38: Tongs and Forceps. ....................................................... 51
Laboratory Thermometer ......................................................................... 52
Figure 39: Laboratory Thermometer. ............................................. 52
Bunsen Burner .......................................................................................... 52
Figure 40: Bunsen Burner. ............................................................. 52
Scale (Balance) ......................................................................................... 53
Figure 41: Scale (Balance). ............................................................ 53
Wash Bottle ............................................................................................... 54
Figure 42: Wash Bottle. ................................................................. 54
3rd Chapter: Procedures of Experiments
Titration ..................................................................................................... 57
Figure 43: Titration. ....................................................................... 59
pK measurement without pH curve ......................................................... 60
Study of plasma buffer property .............................................................. 61
Figure 44: Blood Carbonate-bicarbonate buffer. ............................. 62
Figure 45: universal pH meter colors. ............................................. 63
Molisch test ............................................................................................... 63
Figure 46: Chemical reaction of Molisch test. ................................ 66
Figure 47: Molisch test................................................................... 66
Benedict test .............................................................................................. 67
Figure 48: Results of Benedict test. ................................................ 68
Figure 49: Benedict’s Test. ............................................................ 69
Seliwanoff test .......................................................................................... 70
Figure 50: Seliwanoff-Reaction. ..................................................... 70
Identify Polysaccharides .......................................................................... 71
Figure 51: polysaccharide iodine test.............................................. 71
Ninhydrin test ........................................................................................... 72
Figure 52: Ninhydrin test. .............................................................. 73
Biuret test .................................................................................................. 74
Figure 53: Biuret test...................................................................... 76
Figure 54: Positive and Negative Biuret test. .................................. 77
Unfolding of proteins ............................................................................... 77
Figure 55: Protein denature using heat............................................ 78
Figure 56: Protein denature using heat............................................ 79
Figure 57: Protein Unfolding. ......................................................... 80
Protease effect on gelatin of radiology film ............................................ 80
Figure 58: Radiology film structures. ............................................. 82
Measure activity of 𝜶-amylase of saliva ................................................. 82
Figure 59: α-amylase of saliva. ...................................................... 84
Measuring TG and cholesterol concentration ......................................... 84
Unsaturated fatty acid reaction with iodine ............................................ 86
Figure 60: Unsaturated fatty acid reaction with iodine. ................... 87
Extracting DNA of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae ...................................... 87
Figure 61: Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. ........................................... 89
Hemoglobin Electrophoresis .................................................................... 89
Figure 62: Hemoglobin Electrophoresis. ........................................ 92
4th Chapter: Laboratory Techniques
Review of Immunoassays ........................................................................ 96
Examples of immunoassays ..................................................................... 97
Figure 63: Binding of antigen to solid surface in ELISA technique. 97
Figure 64: Formation of antigen-antibody complexes. .................... 97
Figure 65: Add secondary antibodies.............................................. 98
Figure 66: Add a substrate.............................................................. 98
Figure 67: Western blotting technique. ........................................... 99
Figure 68: Blotting membrane. ..................................................... 100
Figure 69: Examination of proteins from formed bands. ............... 101
Key laboratory points in immunoassays ............................................... 101
Figure 70: Different labels for immunoassays. ............................. 102
Figure 71: Sandwich immunoassay vs. Competitive basis immunoassay. .............................................................................. 103
Figure 72: Hooke effect................................................................ 104
Figure 73: Drug peptides used to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases. ....................................................................................... 106
Figure 74: The figure shows the mechanisms of harvesting interfering antibodies in immunoassay assays. ............................. 108
Standardization in immunoassay methods ............................................ 109
An overview of molecular techniques ................................................... 112
Examples of molecular techniques ........................................................ 112
Figure 75: Use in situ fluorescence hybridization. ........................ 113
Figure 76: PCR. ........................................................................... 115
Criteria for rejection or acceptance of laboratory samples .................. 118
Quality control in the laboratory ........................................................... 125
5th Chapter: References
References .......................................................................................... 131


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